Tax regulations may require items to be included in our tax returns at different times than the items are reflected in our financial statements. Some of these differences are permanent, such as expenses that are not deductible on our tax return, and some are temporary differences, such as the timing of depreciation expense. Temporary differences create deferred tax assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets generally represent items that will be used as a tax deduction or credit in our tax returns in future years which we have already recorded in our financial statements. Deferred tax liabilities generally represent deductions taken on our tax returns that have not yet been recognized as expense in our financial statements. We establish valuation allowances for our deferred tax assets if the amount of expected future taxable income is not likely to allow for the use of the deduction or credit.
We do not provide for U.S. taxes relating to undistributed earnings or losses of our non-U.S. subsidiaries. Income from continuing operations before income taxes of non-U.S. subsidiaries (which subsidiaries are predominately in the U.K.) was $191.4 million, $182.5 million, and $170.6 million during 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively. We believe these earnings will be indefinitely reinvested in the companies that produced them. At December 31, 2016, we have not provided U.S. federal income taxes on a temporary difference of $816.5 million related to the excess of financial reporting basis over tax basis in our non-U.S. subsidiaries.
Classification in Continuing and Discontinued Operations
We classify the results of our operations in our consolidated financial statements based on generally accepted accounting principles relating to discontinued operations, which requires judgments, including whether a business will be divested, the period required to complete the divestiture, the likelihood of changes to the divestiture plans, and whether the divestiture represents a strategic shift that has, or will have, a major impact on our operations. If we determine that a business should be either reclassified from continuing operations to discontinued operations or from discontinued operations to continuing operations, our consolidated financial statements for prior periods are revised to reflect such reclassification. Refer to the disclosures provided in Part II, Item 8, Note 4 of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements for a detailed description of the factors we consider for classification in discontinued operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Please see the disclosures provided under “Recent Accounting Pronouncements” in Part II, Item 8, Note 1 of the Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements set forth below which are incorporated by reference herein.
Results of Operations
The following tables present comparative financial data relating to our operating performance in the aggregate and on a “same-store” basis. Dealership results are included in same-store comparisons when we have consolidated the acquired entity during the entirety of both periods being compared. As an example, if a dealership were acquired on January 15, 2014, the results of the acquired entity would be included in annual same-store comparisons beginning with the year ended December 31, 2016 and in quarterly same store comparisons beginning with the quarter ended June 30, 2015.
2016 compared to 2015 and 2015 compared to 2014 (in millions, except unit and per unit amounts)
Our results for 2014 include a gain of $16.0 million ($9.7 million after-tax), or $0.10 per share, relating to the revaluation at fair value of a previously held non-controlling interest in PTG, of which we acquired a controlling interest in November 2014.