In addition, commentators have suggested the Brexit vote could lead to further referenda as to whether certain of the four countries that comprise the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) will remain a part of the European Union. While the majority of our U.K. operations are in England, we also have operations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The same factors noted above apply to any potential exit of these countries from the United Kingdom.
As exchange rates fluctuate, our revenue and results of operations as reported in U.S. Dollars fluctuate. The British Pound has weakened since the Brexit vote, with an average exchange rate of British Pounds to U.S. Dollars of 1.36 for 2016 compared to 1.53 in 2015, a decrease of 11.3%. A weakening British Pound as compared to the U.S. Dollar negatively impacts our U.S. Dollar reported results of operations. Our U.K. business generated 32% of our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2016. Any of these effects of Brexit, and others we cannot anticipate, could adversely affect our business, consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows.
The success of our commercial vehicle distribution businesses are directly impacted by availability and demand for the vehicles and other products we distribute. We are the exclusive distributor of Western Star commercial trucks, MAN commercial trucks and buses, and Dennis Eagle refuse collection vehicles, together with associated parts, across Australia, New Zealand and portions of the Pacific. We are also the distributor of diesel and gas engines and power systems in these same markets. The profitability of these businesses depends upon the number of vehicles, engines, power systems and parts we distribute, which in turn is impacted by demand for these products. We believe demand is subject to general economic conditions, exchange rate fluctuations, regulatory changes, competitiveness of the products and other factors over which we have limited control. In the event sales of these products are less than we expect, our related results of operations and cash flows for this aspect of our business may be materially adversely affected. The products we distribute are principally manufactured at a limited number of locations. In the event of a supply disruption or if sufficient quantities of the vehicles, engines, power systems and parts are not made available to us, or if we accept these products and are unable to economically distribute them, our cash flows or results of operations may be materially adversely affected.
Australian economic conditions. Our commercial vehicle distribution operations in Australia and New Zealand may be impacted by local economic conditions and in particular, the price of commodities such as copper and iron ore which may impact the desire of our customers to operate their mining operations and replace their vehicle fleets. Adverse pricing concerns of those, and other commodities, may have a material adverse effect on our ability to distribute, and/or retail, commercial vehicles and other products profitably. These same conditions may also negatively impact the value of the Australian dollar versus the U.S. dollar, which negatively impacts our U.S. dollar reported financial results and the pricing of products sold by Penske Commercial Vehicles, which are manufactured in the U.S., U.K., and Germany.
International and foreign currency risk. We have significant operations outside the U.S. that expose us to changes in foreign exchange rates and to the impact of economic and political conditions in the markets where we operate. As exchange rates fluctuate, our results of operations as reported in U.S. Dollars fluctuate. For example, if the U.S. Dollar were to continue to strengthen against the British Pound, our U.K. results of operations would translate into less U.S. Dollar reported results. This occurred in the second quarter of 2016 in large part due to the Brexit vote noted above. The British Pound has weakened since the Brexit vote, with an average exchange rate of British Pounds to U.S. Dollars of 1.36 for 2016 compared to 1.53 in 2015, a decrease of 11.3%. Sustained levels or an increase in the value of the U.S. Dollar, particularly as compared to the British Pound, could result in a significant and adverse effect on our reported results.
Joint ventures. We have significant investments in a variety of joint ventures, including retail automotive operations in Germany, Italy and Spain. We previously had a 9.0% interest in PTL, and as of July 27, 2016, increased our ownership to 23.4%. We expect to receive annual operating distributions from PTL and the other ventures, and in the case of PTL, realize significant cash tax savings. These benefits may not be realized if the joint ventures do not perform as expected, or if changes in tax, financial, or regulatory requirements negatively impact the results of the joint venture operations. Our ability to dispose of these investments may be limited. In addition, the relevant joint venture agreement and other contractual restrictions may limit our access to the cash flows of these joint ventures. For example, PTL’s principal debt agreements allow partner distributions only as long as they are not in default under that agreement and the amount they pay does not exceed 50% of its consolidated net income.